近期,托福®考试决定取消在中国大陆地区三月份所有考试。至此,中国大陆地区二、三月份所有托福考试均已取消。虽然考试取消,但同学们课程的学习却不可松懈,同学们应该和升学规划导师深度沟通,重新调整考试计划和学习计划。更要抓紧时间学习,夯实基础,争取在考试恢复后一举拿下高分。今天我们邀请了海派外语的实力派导师Joyce Fang来给大家解读托福的学习方法和技巧。

作者简介:Joyce Fang,海派外语实力派导师

 

众所周知,托福阅读的一大难点就是长难句的理解,而句中的并列结构看似不起眼,却往往会成为准确理解句意的一大障碍。本文将为大家深入讲解如何快速准确地识别托福阅读长难句中的并列结构。

 

 

识别并列结构的逻辑词

除了最熟知的and之外,以下表并列的逻辑词也是经常出现在托福文章中的:

or, also, as well as, both … and …, not only … but (also)…, too, apart from, in addition (to), additionally, besides, moreover furthermore, one …, another …, some … , others …, alternative, another.

 

识别并列结构的重要特征

从句子层面来看,并列结构的重要特征之一就是并列成分的词性属性和语法结构完全一致。

例如,A, B, and C, 则A、B、C的属性一致,可以是名词、名词性词组、介词短语、从句等。此外,and一般仅出现在并列结构的最后一处,因此在识别并列结构时可以先把握and 后面的语法结构,例如and后面是doing…的结构,就可以去and前面寻找与之并列的doing…结构。

 

 

 

案例分析

下面我们来看看托福阅读中存在并列结构的句子。

1、 名词或名词性短语之间的并列。名词之间的并列一般以列举形式出现。

(1) It even affects the climate on a very local level by influencing light intensity, humidity,and both the range and extremes of temperature. (TPO40-2)

分析:

此处的light intensity, humidity, both the range and extremes of temperature为三个名词或名词性短语并列成分,较为简单。

 

(2) The basic cultural requirements for the successful colonization of the Pacific islands include the appropriate boating-building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to the islands in the first place domesticated plants and gardening skills suited to often marginal conditions, and a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques.

分析:

此句and较多,但从大的层面来看,此句可简化为The basic cultural requirements include A, B, and C.,具体分别是:

A. the appropriate boat-building, sailing and navigation skills;

B. domesticated plants and gardening skills;

C. a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques.

 

2、动词或动词短语之间的并列

(1) The fact that some societies domesticated animals and plants, discovered the use of metal tools, became literate, and developed a state should not make us forget that others developed pastoralism or horticulture (vegetable gardening) but remained illiterate and at low levels of productivity.

分析:

此句the fact that引导的同位语从句中,some societies后面的谓语动词分别是domesticated, discovered, became, and developed,四个动宾结构构成并列关系,而主句可简化为The fact that… should not make us forget that …。

 

(2) According to conventional theory, yawning takes place when people are bored or sleepyand serves the function of increasing alertness by reversing, through deeper breathing, the drop in blood oxygen levels that are caused by the shallow breathing that accompanies lack of sleep or boredom.

分析:

此句takes place和serves the function构成并列关系,说明了yawning发生的时间和功能。

 

——华通海派在线课堂

3、介词或介词短语之间的并列

(1) Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men.

分析:

此处by the absence of …与by the requirement …构成介词短语并列,说明性别不平等被弱化的两个原因:

①  the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth;

② the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men。

 

(2) The West had plenty of attractions: the alluvial river bottoms, the fecund soils of the rolling forest lands, the black loams of the prairies were tempting to New England farmers working their rocky, sterile land and to southeastern farmers plagued with soil depletion and erosion.

分析:

此句有两处并列结构,可简化为X, Y, Z were tempting A and B.:

①  X,Y,Z分别为the alluvial river bottoms, the fecund soils of the rolling forest lands, the black loams of the prairies,列举西部吸引人的地方。

② A,B分别为to New England farmers与to southeastern farmers,说明吸引的对象是新英格兰农民和东南部的农民。

 

 

4、非谓语动词之间的并列

非谓语动词包括现在分词doing,过去分词done,不定时to do,下面以doing为例。

例句:The first steps toward change were taken by Solon in 594 B.C., when he broke the aristocracy’s stranglehold on elected offices by establishing wealth rather than birth as the basis of office holding, abolishing the economic obligations of ordinary Atheninas to the aristocracy, and allowing the assembly to overrule the decisions of local courts in certain cases.

分析:

此句中establishing…, abolishing … and allowing … 三个doing结构构成并列关系,列举打破贵族对于官职垄断的三种方式。抓住这种并列关系,就能更快速地理解长难句了。

 

5、 从句或句子之间的并列

(1) Pioneer species – those that occur only in the earliest stages of colonization – tend to have high rates of invasion because they produce very large numbers of reproductive propagules (seeds, spores, and so on) and because they have an efficient means of dispersal (normally, wind).

分析:

此句是由because引导的两个并列的原因状语,说明pioneer species tend to have high rates of invasion的两个原因。

 

(2) As the seaweed and marsh grass leaves die, bacteria break down the plant material,and insects, small shrimplike organisms, fiddler crabs, andmarsh snails eat the decaying plant tissue, digest it, and excrete wastes high in nutrients.

分析:

此句并列成分较多,首先and连接的并列句,后半部分还有两处小并列:

①  insects, small shrimplike organisms, fiddler crabs, and marsh snails四种动物并列;

②  eat, digest, and excrete三个动词并列

 

 

6、被插入语打断的并列成分

当句子中的并列成分被插入语打断时,会加大并列结构的识别难度。

例句:The focus of life was the agora, the open marketplace where assemblies could be held and where issues of the day, as well as more fundamental topics such as the purpose of government or the relationship between law and freedom, could be discussed and decisions made by individuals in person.

分析:

此句两个where引导定语从句修饰open marketplace,而第二个定语从句中,主干被as well as …的插入成分打断,可先剔除,即issues of the day could be discussed and decisions made by individuals in person,此处and又引导并列句,且decisions后面省略了与前半句相同的could be结构,即open marketplace的三个功能:

① hold assemblies

② discuss issues of the day

③ make decisions

 

 

提高敏感度,遵循语法原则

总而言之,在识别并列结构过程中,需要提高对并列逻辑词的敏感度,再遵循着并列结构前后语法属性一致的原则找到所有并列成分即可。当准确识别出句子的并列结构,理解上也就更清晰易懂了。

 

练习时间

相信通过以上讲解,大家已经对并列结构的识别有了新的认识,那么就用下面两个句子检测一下吧! 

(1) These include conducting vessels that transport water and minerals upward from the roots and that move the photosynthetic products from the leaves to the rest of the plant body and the stiffening substance lignin, which support the plant body, helping it expose maximum surface area to sunlight.

 

(2) Thus there are no New Zealand snakes, and bats, which flew there, and seals, which swam there, were the only mammals on New Zealand when Polynesian settles (the Maori) arrived there about a thousand years ago.

 

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